Archaeological ruins or excavation sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation have been discovered during the excavations conducted in Dholavira in 1989. The excavations led to the discovery of large urban centres such as Ganeriwala, Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, Kalibangan, Dholavira and Lothal. Locally known as Kotada timba, the destination houses ruins of ancient Harappan city. During the excavations, R.S Bisht and Archaeological Survey of India discovered large number of antiquities including beads, seals, animal bones, silver, gold, terracotta ornaments and vessels. Surrounded by Manhar River in south and Mansar River in the north, the site is believed to be an important centre of trade between south Gujarat and its adjoining areas. Conclusions derived as per excavations reveal that the geometrical plans of the city were segmented into three divisions namely, the citadel, the middle town and the lower town. It is evident from the findings that the middle town flourished with defence work, gateways, street system, well built up areas and large open spaces. The buildings of the city were built out of stones, whereas those in other Harappan site, including Harappa itself was constructed out of bricks. Another prominent finding was the water conservation system of channels and reservoirs. Constructed by using stones, the tanks and step wells are believed to be used for storing fresh water brought by rains and water diverted from nearby rivers. Excavation findings reveal that the inhabitants of the region created around sixteen tanks in the premises during ancient period. Possessing the length and depth of around 79 metres and 7 metres, some of the tanks were also used for bathing with several steps descending inwards. Moreover, 400 basic signs and inscriptions on seals, sealing, copper tablets, bronze implements, small objects made of terracotta and stones were found in the region. It is believed that these seals may have been used during trade documentations and official administrative work.
Bhachau, Dholavira, Gujarat 370165, India